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日経英文ニュース【航空自衛隊F35A墜落事故】について詳しく報道

2019年4月24日(水)

今日たまたまメールニュースを見ていたら
日経新聞の英文ニュース配信サービスが目に留まった。

早速登録してみたら、【航空自衛隊F35A墜落事故】の見出しを発見。

クリックしてみると、結構長文の英文が連なっていた (-_-;)
読むには中々『覚悟』が必要なようだ (笑)!

なお、日本経済新聞英文ニュースは、ヘリ搭載艦から改造される
『いずも』は【Aircraft Carrier】(航空母艦)である
と明確に定義している!

取り敢えず、facebook に切り貼りして後でじっくり読むことに!


2019041318205317a.jpg

以下に、その facebook 投稿部分を転載します。

 日経英文サイト(無料登録したが、読めるのは ひと月2本迄)

【F-35 crash shows problems still lurk behind stealth fighter】
TETSURO KOSAKA, Nikkei senior staff writer
APRIL 23, 2019 12:16 JST


【墜落したF-35ステルス戦闘機に潜む数多くの問題が明らかに】
航空自衛隊F35A墜落事故に関して、日本語サイトより相当詳しく記述。
英文全てを理解した訳ではないが「酸素欠乏」について強調している。
相当長文なので、気合を入れて読む『覚悟』が必要かも(笑)

**********
【Oxygen supply system raises questions
as search for pilot and plane continues】

(一部引用)
But the problem persisted in multiple jet models, including the F-35A. The military has not worked out the cause but reportedly has increased the emergency oxygen supply provided to pilots in case the OBOGS fails, among other precautions. Put bluntly, it is employing every trick it can think of to keep using the system.

With the Japan incident, the Air Self-Defense Force pilot called a halt to his training exercise just before the crash. This suggests that he realized something was wrong, after which the situation quickly deteriorated. That would fit with hypoxia caused by an OBOGS malfunction.

Such problems are a risk in the modern era. These days, all aircraft, civilian or military, are filled with electronics requiring complex software to run. As such, new planes must be put through a series of test flights to find and correct any problems in the code.


F35A_Nikkei-E_APR23-2019.jpg
An F-35A fighter jet at the Paris Air Show. U.S. pilots of F-35s
and other planes have reported symptoms that suggest
an oxygen shortage. © Reuters

【Japan reassures US on F-35 purchase despite crash】
RIEKO MIKI, Nikkei staff writer
APRIL 21, 2019 21:12 JST


【日本は墜落事故にも拘わらず米国製F-35の購入を再確認!】

**********
【Jet's role in diplomacy and defense
trumps safety concerns -- for now】

(一部引用)
After its initial order of 42 F-35As, the cabinet last year approved plans to buy another 105 jets. This includes 42 F-35Bs, which are capable of vertical takeoff and landing and could be deployed from a destroyer that Japan is converting into an aircraft carrier.
(安倍晋三)内閣は、最初の42機のF-35A発注に追加して昨年105機を追加した。
その中には、垂直離着陸機が離発着できるように駆逐艦(destroyer)から改造された
空母(aircraft carrier)に搭載する42機のF-35Bも含まれる。


F35A_Nikkei-E_APR21-2019.jpg
Japan's military is positioning the F-35A as the next mainstay of
its air forces, but the crash this month has raised concerns about
the plane. (Photo courtesy of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force)

日経英文サイト
(無料登録では、ひと月2本迄閲覧可能のようですが、
 見出しとリードは、もっと読めるようです)

【Japan to convert helicopter carrier Izumo into aircraft carrier】
Nikkei staff writers
DECEMBER 11, 2018 15:33 JST


【Plan to be included in new defense program, raising constitutional questions】
新しい防衛プラン(『いずも』の空母化など)に憲法上の疑義が持ち揚がっている。

TOKYO -- Japan plans to convert the Maritime Self-Defense Force's helicopter carrier Izumo into an aircraft carrier under a new basic defense program to be adopted later this month.

【日経東京】
日本(政府)は、新しい防衛政策の下で海上自衛隊のヘリコプター搭載艦『いずも』を
航空母艦(aircraft carrier)に改造することを今月(2018年12月)下旬に決定した。
➡ 日経新聞は改造された『いずも』が航空母艦であると明確に定義している。


IZUMO_Nikkei-E_DEC11-2018.jpg
A helicopter lands on the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force
helicopter carrier Izumo
The government's latest defense plan calls for the vessel to be
converted to carry F-35 jets. © Reuters

【Japan plans to deploy hypersonic missiles and upgraded carrier】
MASAYA KATO, Nikkei staff writer
DECEMBER 05, 2018 03:48 JST


【Draft guidelines raise eyebrows over growing offensive capabilities】

TOKYO -- The Japanese government is looking to deploy long-range and hypersonic missiles as part of guidelines due out this month, though some critics say such equipment goes beyond the Self-Defense Forces' purely defensive mandate.

【日経東京】
日本政府は、専守防衛の自衛隊の本来の任務を超えると批判されながらも
今月(2018年12月)改訂する防衛ガイドラインに沿って長距離超音速ミサイル
等の配備を進めようとしている。 



IZUMO_Nikkei-E_DEC05-2018.jpg
The Izumo military helicopter carrier of
the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) .
Japan has been beefing up its defense capabilities in order to
counter rising threats in the region. © Kyodo



***********

【F-35 crash shows problems still lurk behind stealth fighter】
TETSURO KOSAKA, Nikkei senior staff writer
APRIL 23, 2019 12:16 JST

【Oxygen supply system raises questions
as search for pilot and plane continues】

TOKYO -- In the weeks since a Japanese F-35A stealth fighter jet crashed into the Pacific Ocean, the U.S. and Japan have not yet found either the plane or the cause of the incident. But it could be linked to a system that has bedeviled the American military for years.

All F-35s have onboard oxygen generation systems, or OBOGS, which draw oxygen from the surrounding air and supply it to the pilot at the high concentration necessary to operate at high altitudes. The U.S. Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps have used OBOGS for more than three decades, in models including the F-16 and F/A-18 as well as certain training planes.

But since the U.S. began using OBOGS in the F-22 in 2008, there have been more than 20 cases of F-22 pilots experiencing symptoms indicating a lack of oxygen, apparently due to problems with the system. An F-22A crashed in November 2010 in an incident that may have resulted from an oxygen shortage.

Low levels of oxygen in the bloodstream -- known as hypoxia -- can cause sweating, headaches and dizziness, followed by vision problems and trouble making decisions, and eventually loss of consciousness. After the 2010 crash, the U.S. military temporarily stopped using OBOGS in the F-22 while it worked to address the issue, in part by replacing components in the system.

But the problem persisted in multiple jet models, including the F-35A. The military has not worked out the cause but reportedly has increased the emergency oxygen supply provided to pilots in case the OBOGS fails, among other precautions. Put bluntly, it is employing every trick it can think of to keep using the system.

With the Japan incident, the Air Self-Defense Force pilot called a halt to his training exercise just before the crash. This suggests that he realized something was wrong, after which the situation quickly deteriorated. That would fit with hypoxia caused by an OBOGS malfunction.

Such problems are a risk in the modern era. These days, all aircraft, civilian or military, are filled with electronics requiring complex software to run. As such, new planes must be put through a series of test flights to find and correct any problems in the code.

Test pilots, as well as the first pilots to operate new models after their rollout, must fly without knowing whether bugs might still lurk in their planes' programming. The task is a dangerous one.

The ASDF grounded all of its F-35As after the crash. At this point, it is impossible to tell whether the OBOGS might have been involved in the incident. But whether or not this turns out to be the case, given the long-running issues with the system in the U.S., Japan must also consider it suspicious.

But the ASDF cannot simply modify the planes to remove the OBOGS and use liquid-oxygen systems like those in the F-15, its current mainstay, because that would break the terms of its deal with Washington. This is a major downside to buying foreign jets.

There is one other concern. In June 2017, the USS Fitzgerald, an American destroyer equipped with the Aegis missile defense system, collided with a Philippine containership off the Japanese coast, killing seven people on board. The captain and another officer were court-martialed for criminal negligence. But the U.S. Navy recently made the unusual decision to withdraw the charges.

Like modern fighter jets, Aegis-equipped vessels are full of electronics. The accident prompted speculation that the Fitzgerald could have been hacked or hit with an electromagnetic pulse attack that caused systems to malfunction.

With military secrets involved, the truth remains a mystery. But the strange decision to withdraw charges over an incident that caused multiple deaths raises the possibility that hacking was found to have been involved, leading the military to conclude that the officers were blamed in error.

There are worries that the F-35A and the F-22 could be hacked -- perhaps during system updates -- to plant the seeds for future software problems. The U.S. military is believed to be looking into this risk with respect to the OBOGS malfunctions.

A national security source said of a recent piece on the American scramble to keep the F-35's secrets safe from Russia and China: "I agree with it, but the situation is more serious than that," the source said. What that could mean remains a mystery of its own.




【Japan reassures US on F-35 purchase despite crash】
RIEKO MIKI, Nikkei staff writer
APRIL 21, 2019 21:12 JST

【Jet's role in diplomacy and defense
trumps safety concerns -- for now】

WASHINGTON -- The recent crash of an F-35A stealth fighter jet will not stop Tokyo's plans to buy more of the aircraft, which is crucial to strengthening defense capabilities and maintaining a strong relationship with its ally, the U.S., Japan's defense minister said after meeting his American counterpart.

"At this point, we have no specific information that would lead to a change in procurement plans," Japanese Defense Minister Takeshi Iwaya told reporters after meeting Friday with acting U.S. Defense Secretary Patrick Shanahan at the Pentagon. Iwaya said he and Shanahan discussed Japan's plans for deploying American defense equipment, including F-35 purchases.

The Japanese government is positioning the mainly U.S.-developed F-35 as the backbone of its air force, replacing aging F-4s and F-15s that have become difficult to keep up to date. After its initial order of 42 F-35As, the cabinet last year approved plans to buy another 105 jets. This includes 42 F-35Bs, which are capable of vertical takeoff and landing and could be deployed from a destroyer that Japan is converting into an aircraft carrier.

The additional purchases come against the backdrop of U.S. President Donald Trump's repeated calls for Japan to buy more American defense equipment to shrink its trade surplus. Trump personally thanked Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe for buying so many F-35s when the two leaders met in Argentina last November.

Japan has received 13 F-35As so far, of which four were built in the U.S. and the rest assembled in Japan from American components. The government plans to procure six more this fiscal year. Going forward, Tokyo will stick to importing finished jets, as it is more cost-effective.

Though Japan's Self-Defense Forces have yet to put F-35s into active service, Tokyo hopes that adding U.S.-made planes to the fleet will help it serve as a greater deterrent, especially given the jet's capability to be equipped with advanced interceptor missiles that could potentially destroy ballistic missiles in midair.

But the April 9 crash during a training mission could derail these plans. Little is known about the crash as both the U.S. and Japan scour the Pacific off the northeast coast of Japan to look for wreckage of the jet. The pilot, who is still missing, had called for the mission to end before his plane went down. Should the incident turn out to have been caused by a defect in the plane, Tokyo could face calls to stop buying them.

According to the Defense Ministry, five of Japan's 13 F-35As have been involved in seven emergency landings. Two of the incidents involved faults in the plane that later crashed. While the jets were inspected each time to confirm they were safe to fly, the ministry is checking again to see if there might be any links to the accident.

The U.S. has not disclosed details of the F-35's state-of-the-art technology to other countries, and there are worries that China or Russia could get their hands on the wreckage and unlock some of its secrets, including the jet's capability to shoot down ballistic missiles. This is among the reasons why Washington is sending a deep-sea search vessel to the site of the incident to help find the wreckage.

If the cause of the crash turns out to involve sensitive information about the plane, the U.S. could be reluctant to share it with even its close ally Japan.

The medium-term defense program approved by the Japanese government in late 2018 calls for a record 27 trillion yen ($205 billion) in spending over the next five years, in an effort to bolster Japan's defenses as well as revitalize its defense industry. The F-35 is central to these plans, and a disruption to procurement would throw a wrench in the works.




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